1.1 ( Grades: K-12 ): The natural and designed world is complex; it is too large and complicated to investigate and comprehend all at once. Scientists and students learn to define small portions for the convenience of investigation. The units of investigation can be referred to as "systems." A system is an organized group of related objects or components that form a whole. Systems can consist, for example, of organisms, machines, fundamental particles, galaxies, ideas, numbers, transportation, and education. Systems have boundaries, components, resources flow (input and output), and feedback.
1.2 ( Grades: K-12 ): The goal of this standard is to think and analyze in terms of systems. Thinking and analyzing in terms of systems will help students keep track of mass, energy, objects, organisms, and events referred to in the other content standards. The idea of simple systems encompasses subsystems as well as identifying the structure and function of systems, feedback and equilibrium, and the distinction between open and closed systems.
A.1.2.a ( Grades: K-4 ): In the earliest years, investigations are largely based on systematic observations. As students develop, they may design and conduct simple experiments to answer questions. The idea of a fair test is possible for many students to consider by fourth grade.
A.2.5 ( Grades: K-4 ): Scientists make the results of their investigations public; they describe the investigations in ways that enable others to repeat the investigations.
E.1.1.a ( Grades: K-4 ): In problem identification, children should develop the ability to explain a problem in their own words and identify a specific task and solution related to the problem.
E.1.4.a ( Grades: K-4 ): Students should evaluate their own results or solutions to problems, as well as those of other children, by considering how well a product or design met the challenge to solve a problem. When possible, students should use measurements and include constraints and other criteria in their evaluations. They should modify designs based on the results of evaluations.
Benchmarks for Science Literacy
11A/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): In something that consists of many parts, the parts usually influence one another.
11A/E2 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Something may not work well (or at all) if a part of it is missing, broken, worn out, mismatched, or misconnected.
12B/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Make calculations when necessary to solve real-world problems and decide whether to make the calculation mentally, on paper, or with the help of a calculator or computer.
1A/P1 ( Grades: K-2 ): When a science investigation is done the way it was done before, we expect to get a very similar result.
1A/P2 ( Grades: K-2 ): When a science investigation is done again in a different place, we expect to get a very similar result.
1B/E1 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments.
3B/E2 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Even a good design may fail. Sometimes steps can be taken ahead of time to reduce the likelihood of failure, but it cannot be entirely eliminated.
3B/E3 ( Grades: 3-5 ): The solution to one problem may create other problems.
3C/E4 ( Grades: 3-5 ): Factors such as cost, safety, appearance, environmental impact, and what will happen if the solution fails must be considered in technological design.